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  • Writer's pictureEd DiMarco MS, MA

Common and Costly Legal Risks in Real Estate Transactions

Real estate transactions involve significant financial stakes and are intrinsically complex, making them susceptible to a variety of legal risks. Here are some of the most common and potentially expensive legal challenges faced by parties involved in real estate transactions:

1. Title Discrepancies:

Risk: The property's title might have unresolved issues like liens, encumbrances, or disputes over ownership.

Cost Implications: Litigating title disputes can be expensive, and unresolved title issues can nullify a sale or transfer.

2. Non-Disclosure of Property Defects:

Risk: Sellers may fail to disclose known defects in the property, leading to potential lawsuits.

Cost Implications: The buyer may seek compensation for repairs, damages, or even rescission of the sale.

3. Zoning and Land Use Violations:

Risk: The property may not be zoned for the buyer's intended use or may have unauthorized additions or modifications.

Cost Implications: The buyer might incur costs to bring the property into compliance or face penalties.

4. Contractual Disputes:

Risk: Ambiguities or misunderstandings in the purchase agreement can lead to disagreements and potential litigation.

Cost Implications: Legal fees, damages, or the cost to renegotiate or void the contract.

5. Financing and Mortgage Issues:

Risk: Problems can arise with obtaining financing, or there may be discrepancies between the agreed-upon terms and the final mortgage documents.

Cost Implications: Delays, additional negotiation, or the collapse of the transaction.

6. Boundary and Survey Disputes:

Risk: The property's physical boundaries might differ from what's recorded or what's been sold.

Cost Implications: Resurveying, potential loss of land, or legal disputes with neighbors.

7. Environmental Issues:

Risk: The property might have environmental contamination, making the new owner liable for cleanup.

Cost Implications: Remediation expenses, fines, or legal fees if the issue leads to litigation.

8. Inaccurate Appraisals:

Risk: If a property is inaccurately appraised, it might be sold for a value not commensurate with its market worth.

Cost Implications: Financial loss for either the buyer (overpayment) or the seller (underpayment).

9. Fraud:

Risk: Unscrupulous parties might engage in fraudulent activities like falsifying documents, impersonating owners, or hiding significant liabilities.

Cost Implications: Potential financial losses, legal fees, and the possible nullification of the transaction.

10. Breach of Fiduciary Duty:

Risk: Real estate agents or brokers might not act in the best interests of their clients.

Cost Implications: Financial loss, potential litigation costs, and damage to reputation.

Mitigation Strategies:

1. Due Diligence: Both buyers and sellers should conduct thorough due diligence to uncover potential issues before they escalate.

2. Professional Assistance: Engage experienced real estate agents, attorneys, and inspectors to guide the process.

3. Clear Contracts: Ensure all agreements are detailed, clear, and cover potential contingencies.

4. Title Insurance: This can protect against unforeseen title issues.


While real estate transactions can be lucrative and fulfilling, they're not without risks. Awareness and proactive mitigation strategies are essential for any party looking to navigate the complex world of real estate transactions successfully.

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